Atari History Timelines by Michael Current

A History of
Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment
(Atari Adventure operator)

http://mcurrent.name/atarihistory/edison_brothers_mall_entertainment.html
Compiled and Copyright (c) 2008-2015 by Michael D. Current
Library Department, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse

Additions/suggestions/comments/corrections to:
michael@mcurrent.name

Information presented here is derived as directly as possible from sources published or produced in the original time period.  While also consulted extensively, modern historical retrospectives (including books, oral histories, and especially websites) are utilized chiefly as pathways to primary sources.

Jump to: 1990 | 1991 | 1992 | 1993 | 1994 | 1995 | 1996 | 1997 | Links


1989
November 20: Edison Brothers Stores established Edison Brothers Entertainment, Inc., for the purpose of acquiring a controlling interest in Dave & Buster's, Inc.

December: Edison Brothers Stores, via Edison Brothers Entertainment, Inc., acquired an 80% interest in Dave & Buster's, Inc., which operated two freestanding restaurant/entertainment complexes in Dallas TX; the company would have sales of more than $10 million in 1989.

1990
March 23: Edison Brothers Stores, Inc. established the new subsidiary, Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment, Inc., with the intent to acquire the assets of Adventure Properties, Ltd., A California Limited Partnership.

Edison Brothers Stores, Inc.      Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment, Inc.

April 3: Edison Brothers Stores, Inc., announced it had begun the expansion of the Edison Brothers Entertainment division with the purchase of Adventure Properties, Ltd.  Adventure operated 48 game rooms, mostly under the name Space Port, and one larger family entertainment center.  These units were located principally in shopping malls.  Adventure Properties' sales were about $12 million in 1989.  Andrew E. Newman was EBS chairman. (EBS press release)  According to the St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri) (4/4/90), Adventure operated 48 video game rooms, primarily in shopping malls in 24 states, including Atari Adventure at Crestwood Plaza, St. Louis MO.  Other sites included Caesars Palace in Las Vegas NV and Video Adventure at the Disneyland Hotel in Anaheim CA.

May 5: Together, Adventure Properties Ltd. and Time-Out Family Amusement Centers, Inc. operated 136 game rooms and 3 larger family entertainment centers, mostly in shopping malls. (EBS 10-Q)

May 14: Edison Brothers Stores announced that it would add 88 game rooms and family entertainment centers to its Edison Brothers Entertainment division by buying Time-Out, a U.S. division of Sega Enterprises Ltd. of Japan.  Time-Out had 1989 sales of about $33 million.  "The operations we are acquiring include some mall entertainment centers which are among the largest in the nation," said EBS chairman Andrew E. Newman.  The addition of the Time-Out units would give Edison about 140 entertainment operations in 30 states.  Martin Sneider was EBS president. (St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri) 5/15)  Time-Out locations operated as either Time-Out or Station-Break.  Locations included Time-Out on the Court, 33,000 square feet of floor space at Forest Fair Mall, Forest Park OH near Cincinnati, which was the first amusement park located within a shopping center when in opened in March 1989.

May 15: St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri) report reprised that in April Edison Brothers Stores had agreed to buy 48 video rooms from Adventure Properties Ltd.  Most of the video rooms operated in malls under the Space Port name.  One of the rooms being acquired was in Caesars Palace in Las Vegas and another was Video Adventure at the Disneyland Hotel in Anaheim CA.

May 25: Andy Halliday, previously vp and gm of the Sacha London subsidiary of Edison Brothers Stores, became president of Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment; Halliday would also serve as group president of the new Edison Brothers Entertainment group, which (so far) consisted of Edison Brothers Entertainment, Inc. (Dave & Buster's) and Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment, Inc.

May 28: St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri) article reported that Adventure Properties Ltd. and Time-Out Family Amusement Centers, Inc., both being acquired by Edison Brothers Stores, together operated 134 video game rooms in the 1,500-square-foot range, plus three large entertainment centers from 20,000 square feet up to 40,000 square feet. Andrew E. Newman was EBS chairman and Martin Sneider was EBS president.

June 8: Edison Brothers Stores completed its purchase of (assets of) Adventure Properties, Ltd., which operated 48 amusement game centers, located principally in shopping malls, and 1 larger mall-based family entertainment center. (6/11 EBS press release)

Edison Brothers Stores, Inc.      Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment, Inc.     Space Port
Atari Adventure logo

July 3: Edison Brothers Stores announced it had completed its purchase of Time-Out, which operated 88 game rooms and family entertainment centers in shopping malls.  Time-Out Family Amusement Centers, Inc., was now 100% owned by Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment, Inc.

Edison Brothers Stores, Inc.      Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment, Inc.     Time-Out
Space Port
Station Break logo
Atari Adventure logo

July 19: Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment announced that it would consolidate its operations in St. Louis from offices in Fairfax, Va. (home of Time-Out Family Amusement Centers, Inc.), and Philadelphia, Pa. (home of Adventure Properties, Ltd.). Those offices would be closed.  The EBS Entertainment division currently included seven employees in St. Louis.  The division operated 140 stores and planned to open five or six more in August. Andy Halliday remained president of Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment. (St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri) 7/20)

July 31: During the second quarter of 1990, the Edison Brothers Stores had completed the acquisition of Adventure Properties Ltd., Consolidated Amusement Company and Time-Out Family Amusement Centers, Inc. Together these chains operated 130 game rooms and 2 larger family entertainment centers, mostly in shopping malls. (EBS Annual Reports 2/2/91, 2/2/92, 1/30/93)

August 4: Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment operated 129 game rooms and 3 larger family entertainment centers, mostly in shopping malls. (EBS 10-Q)

August 6: Article in the Orange County Register incorrectly referred to Video Adventure at the Disneyland Hotel, Anaheim CA, by its former name, Atari Adventure.  The name had been changed winter 1988.

November 3: Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment operated 129 game rooms and 3 larger family entertainment centers, mostly in shopping malls. (EBS 10-Q)

December 31: At year-end Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment operated 131 entertainment centers, including 129 family entertainment centers and 2 ("of the country's largest" - "each about 30,000 square feet") anchor entertainment centers (EBS Annual Report 2/2/91)

1991
February 2: Andrew Halliday was Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment President and John Denlinger, Richard P. Long, and George McAuliffe were vice presidents.  In total, the Edison Brothers Entertainment division operated 133 units (2 Dave & Buster's restaurant/entertainment complexes; 131 Time-Out and Space Port family entertainment centers. (EBS Annual Report)

September 24: Edison Brothers Stores established the subsidiary, Horizon Entertainment, Inc.  Horizon Entertainment would join Edison Brothers Entertainmet, Inc. (Dave & Buster's) and Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment in the Edison Brothers Entertainment group headed by group president Andy Halliday.

October 17: Edison Brothers Stores announced that it had formed a new division, Horizon Entertainment, to be the exclusive U.S. distributor of Virtuality, created by W Industries in England under the direction of Jonathan Waldern.  Edison Brothers Stores also announced that Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment would become the exclusive mall operator of Laser Storm, developed by Space Sport, a division of The Crimson Corp. of Denver (no relation to the Space Port arcade concept).  Edison Brothers operated 140-plus mall entertainment centers. Andrew Newman was chairman of Edison Brothers. (St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri) 10/18/91)

October 18: Article in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri) mentioned the Edison Brothers Stores Atari Adventure location at Crestwood Plaza in Crestwood MO.

October 24: Dave & Buster's opened in Houston (53,000 square feet), its third location.

Fall: Edison Brothers Stores installed some of the first virtual-reality games in Las Vegas, four machines set up in an arcade in Caesars Palace.  After three months, Edison would move the machines to company-owned arcades in other cities. (Calgary Herald (Alberta, Canada) 9/22/94)

November:  Edison Brothers Stores featured both Laser Storm and Virtuality at the International Association of Amusement Parks & Attractions (IAAPA) in Orlando FL.

December 31: Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment operated 128 primarily mall-based Time-Out and Space Port family amusement centers and larger family entertainment centers at year end 1991. Dave & Buster's operated 3 restaurant/entertainment complexes in Texas at year-end 1991. (EBS 10-K 2/1/92)

1992
January 5: Report that game software for Virtuality, developed by W Industries, distributed by the Horizon Entertainment unit of Edison Brothers Stores, was being provided by Spectrum Holobyte (division of Sphere Inc.).  Games were to include Dactyl Nightmare. (NYT)

January: Horizon Entertainment and Sphere Inc. co-founded Cyberstudio to develop games for Virtuality. (Daily Variety 7/16/92)

Feburary 1: Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment operated 128 locations.  Andrew Halliday was President; Richard P. Long and George McAuliffe were  Vice Presidents; Andrew W. Hanshew and John E. Hayes, Jr. were Assistant Vice Presidents.  (EBS Annual Report for 1991)

March 14: An installation of Virtuality from Horizon Entertainment opened in St. Louis Union Station, featuring Dactyl Nightmare and Exorex, games created by Spectrum HoloByte and manufactured by W Industries of Britain. (St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri) 3/16)

May 11: Grand Opening of The Forum Shops at Caesars, Las Vegas NV, which included a Namco Cyber Station.  Seems likely that the Atari Adventure at Caesars Palace would have closed by or around this event.

May 24: Article in The Grand Rapids Press on Las Vegas NV mentioned that "Atari Adventure arcades are located in Caesars Palace and the Riviera."

Spring?: The former Atari Adventure at Crestwood Plaza in St. Louis MO was renovated into the prototype for the new Exhilarama concept.

June 23: Edison Brothers Stores was launching Exhilarama, using Virtuality, in four major malls in the East and Midwest. (Daily Variety 6/23)

August 24: Edison Brothers Stores was building its first Party Zone entertainment center at Randhurst Mall in Mount Prospect IL; the company operated 140 Time-Out and Space Port locations. (Crain's Chicago Business)

September 24: Paramount Pictures, part of the entertainment operations of Paramount Communications Inc., announced it had entered into a licensing agreement with Edison Brothers Entertainment, Inc., under which Edison Brothers would develop shopping mall-based virtual reality entertainment centers themed after the Paramount television series, "Star Trek: The Next Generation."  Edison Brothers was to unveil the first "Star Trek" center in 1993. Initial plans for the centers included virtual reality attractions as well as restaurants and merchandise areas.  The 'Star Trek' virtual reality attractions were expected to incorporate software created by Spectrum HoloByte Inc.  Brandon Tartikoff was chairman of Paramount Pictures and Andrew Newman was chairman of Edison Brothers. (PCI press release)  (The project eventually led to Star Trek: The Experience which opened in January 1998)

September 25: Edison Brothers Entertainment group company Horizon Entertainment had 10 virtual reality centers in various cities based on different themes. Two were in St. Louis - one at Union Station and one at Crestwood Plaza. (St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri).

October 4: Edison Brothers Stores opened its first Party Zone entertainment center at Randhurst Mall in Mount Prospect IL. (Trademarkia for date)

Edison Brothers Stores, Inc.      Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment, Inc.    
Time-Out      Party Zone logo
Space Port
Station Break logo

October 10: Edison Brothers Stores opened the first Exhilarama location (32,000 square feet) at Echelon Mall in Voorhees, N.J., outside Philadelphia.  The concept was based on Edison's 33,000 square foot Time-Out on the Court at Forest Fair Mall near Cincinnati, and the new Exhilarama theme had been tested on a smaller scale at Crestwood Plaza in St. Louis MO earlier in the year.  Futures sites were planned for St. Louis; Cary, N.C., and the Franklin Mills mall in Northeast Philadelphia. (source and FunWorld May94p20) (The planned Franklin Mills Exhilarama would not be built.)

Edison Brothers Stores, Inc.      Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment, Inc.    
Time-Out      Party Zone logo  
Space Port Exhilarama logo
Station Break logo

October: Dave & Buster's opened a 55,000 square foot location in Atlanta, its fourth location.

November 4: Edison Brothers Stores had discontinued use of its "EBS" logo, in use since 3/31/1983 (source)

November/December?: Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment opened a second Party Zone at The Mall at 163rd Street in Miami. (Shopping Center World Feb93p62)

December 1992: Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment renovated its Time-Out on the Court facility at Forest Fair Mall near Cincinnati, expanding total floor space from 33,000 to 52,000 square feet; while the name would remain Time-Out on the Court, the location would operate using the Exhilarama concept. (FunWorld May94p20)

1993
January 4: Edison Brothers Stores opened the second Exhilarama location, a 23,000 square foot location (formerly the mall's movie theaters) at Crestwood Plaza, St. Louis.  The next/third Exhilarama was expected to open in a suburb of Raleigh, N.C. in the spring.

January 30: Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment operated 130 primarily mall-based Time-Out, Space Port, and Party Zone family amusement centers and 4 larger mall-based family entertainment centers, including 2 Exhilarama units, at the end of fiscal 1992.  Andrew Halilday was Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment President; Richard P. Long and George McAuliffe were vice presidents; William Canner, Andrew W. Hanshew, and John E. Hayes, Jr. were assistant vice presidents. Dave & Buster's operated 4 restaurant/entertainment complexes located in Texas and Georgia at the end of fiscal 1992.  (EBS 10-K and Annual report)

February: In addition to all Exhilarama and Dave & Buster's locations, Horizon Entertainment had Virtuality games in place at Mall of America in Bloomington MN, Union Station in St. Louis, and South Street Seaport in New York (Shopping Center World Feb93p62)

February 25: Report that Edison Brothers no longer planned an Exhilarama at the Franklin Mills mall in Philadelphia. (source)

July 4: Edison Brothers Stores had three Exhilarama virtual reality amusement centers operating in the United States (NYT) (Three including Time-Out on the Court.)

July 10: Edison Brothers Stores opened an Exhilarama (the third) in a 26,000 square feet location at Crossroads Plaza, Cary, North Carolina. (source)

November 28: "For several years, [Edison Brothers Stores] has operated arcades on the premises of two casinos in Las Vegas: Caesars Palace and the Riviera." Crestwood Plaza had one of the country's 5 Exhilarama locations.  (St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri))

December 11: Official opening of the fourth and largest-yet Exhilarama, a 47,000 square foot location at Memorial City Mall in Houston. (Amusement Business, April 4-10, 1994)

1994
January 29: Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment operated 128 primarily mall-based Time-Out, Space Port, and Party Zone family amusement centers and 5 larger mall-based family entertainment centers at the end of fiscal 1993.  Exhilarama operated five mall-based anchor entertainment centers in Philadelphia, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Raleigh/Durham, and Houston.  At Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment: Andrew Halliday was President; Vice Presidents were Richard P. Long and George McAuliffe; Assistant Vice Presidents were William Canner, Andrew W. Hanshew, and John E. Hayes, Jr.  Dave & Buster's operated 4 restaurant/entertainment complexes located in Texas and Georgia. (EBS 10-K and Annual Report)

February 15: Grand opening for the new Dave & Buster's (the fifth), a flagship 70,000 square foot location on Pier 19 in Philadelphia.

April: Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment owned and operated 129 Time-Out, Space Port, and Party Zone Entertainment Centers. (Amusement Business, April 4-10, 1994)

June: Edison Brothers Stores purchased from Race Rock, Inc., a corporation wholly-owned by Robert B. Moore, certain of its assets, including its "Race Rock'" motorsports themed restaurant concept and related intellectual and personal property, for a purchase price of $1,373,000, plus certain contingent future payments, with the intention to develop the restaurant concept into a national chain. (source)  The single Race Rock Motor City Diner location was in Detroit.  Andy Halliday remained Edison Brothers Entertainment group president.

July: Edison Brothers Stores closed the Race Rock Motor City Diner it had just acquired from Race Rock, Inc., but remained committed to developing the Race Rock concept into a national chain. (St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri) 12/24/95)

1995
January 18: Edison Brothers Stores announced that Andrew E. Newman and Martin Sneider would retire as chairman and president of the company, but would remain directors.  Alan Miller would become, chairman, president, and chief executive officer, effective spring 1995. Also, Karl W. Michner, president of Edison Menswear Group, and Peter A. Edison, executive vice president for corporate development, would become senior executive vice presidents in the newly created Office of the Chairman.

January 28: Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment operated 129 primarily mall-based Time-Out, Space Port, and Party Zone family amusement centers and 5 larger mall-based Exhilarama family entertainment centers. Dave & Buster's operated 3 restaurant/entertainment complexes in Texas,1 in Georgia, and 1 in Pennsylvania. (EBS 10-K)  At Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment: Andrew Halliday was President; Vice President was George McAuliffe; Assistant Vice Presidents were William Canner, Andrew W. Hanshew, and John E. Hayes, Jr. (EBS Annual Report)

February 1: Edison Brothers Stores announced plans to spin off the Dave & Buster's, Inc., unit of its Entertainment division.  Dallas-based Dave & Buster's operated five restaurant/entertainment complexes: two in Dallas and one each in Houston, Atlanta, and Philadelphia (White Flint Mall). Two new Dave & Buster's locations were under development in downtown and suburban Chicago; they were expected to open later in 1995.  Andrew A. Newman remained EBS chairman.

February 8: Edison Brothers Stores established the new subsidiaries Race Rock International, Inc. and Race Rock Real Estate, Inc.  The Race Rock subsidiaries would be part of the Edison Brothers Entertainment group, joining Edison Brothers Entertainment, Inc. (Dave & Buster's), Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment, and Horizon Entertainment.

February?: Edison Brothers Stores, via subsidiaries Race Rock International and Race Rock Real Estate, acquired the Caruso's Palace restaurant in Orlando FL for $3 million to $4 million.

March?: Edison Brothers Stores sold intellectual property rights held by its Horizon Entertainment, Inc. unit to Ham On Rye Technologies, Inc., which had been established by Horizon Entertainment managers Randy and Susan Sprout on March 1, 1995.  Horizon Entertainment would continue to operate established installations of its technologies.

April: Edison Brothers Stores executives Newman and Martin Sneider departed the company; Alan Miller became chairman, president, and CEO. (St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri) 12/24/95 for date)

May 1: Andy Halliday, president of Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment and group president of Edison Brothers Entertainment, departed the company.

May: Edison Brothers Stores closed Caruso's Palace in Orlando, planning to convert it to the Race Rock concept. (St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri) 12/24/95)

June 29: Edison Brothers Stores sold Edison Brothers Entertainment, Inc., including its controlling interest in Dave & Buster's, Inc. and its five Dave & Buster's locations, to EBS shareholders. (Dave & Buster's, Inc. would be merged into Edison Brothers Entertainment, Inc., which would be renamed Dave & Buster's, Inc.)  The Edison Brothers Entertainment group now consisted of Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment, Horizon Entertainment, Race Rock International, and Race Rock Real Estate.

July: Edison Brothers Stores sold both the Caruso's Palace real estate in Orlando (Race Rock Real Estate, Inc.) and the Race Rock concept (Race Rock International, Inc.) to Race Rock Holdings, Inc., a business established June 30, 1995 by Race Rock creator Bobby Moore and former EBS chairman Andrew Newman.  (St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri) 12/24/95 and source).  The Edison Brothers Entertainment group now consisted of Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment and Horizon Entertainment.

August 25: Ad by The Walt Disney Company for Disneyland mentioned Video Adventure at the Disneyland Hotel. (Orange County Register pShow29)

September 3: Edison Brothers Stores Mall Entertainment operated five large-format mall entertainment centers called Exhilarama and 126 smaller arcades called Time-Out and Space Port. (St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri))

November 3: Edison Brothers Stores Inc. announced that it had filed for bankruptcy protection from its creditors, saying it hoped to close 500 of its unprofitable stores before February.  The company's filing in U.S. Bankruptcy Court in Wilmington, Del., covered all 65 of its subsidiaries.

November 4: Edison Brothers operated 134 Time-Out/Space Port mall-entertainment centers. (Philadelphia Inquirer)

December 16: Edison Brothers Stores said it was seeking court approval to sell its entertainment unit (Horizon Entertainment and Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment units) by Feb. 2, 1996 to Sun Capital, which was based in West Palm Beach, Fla. The units operated 126 game rooms and larger entertainment centers under the names Space Port and Time Out. The company's motion allowed for rival bids by Jan. 12.  (St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri))

1996
January 4: A bankruptcy court had approved a letter of intent between Edison and Sun Capital Partners Inc. of West Palm Beach, Fla.  Sun, a venture capital firm, would buy Edison's 128 game rooms and larger entertainment centers for a reported $17 million. Other potential buyers had until Jan. 12 to submit competing bids. (St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri))

January 19: Edison Brothers Stores, Inc., announced that (Aladdin's Castle and Cyberstation location operator) Namco Cybertainment, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Namco Ltd. of Tokyo, Japan, would acquire the assets and selected stores of Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment and Horizon Entertainment, subject to approval by U.S. Bankruptcy Court in Delaware.  Namco was identified as the buyer at an auction held 1/18/96 in accordance with the EBS court-approved bidding procedures.  Edison's entertainment division operated 128 game rooms and larger entertainment centers under the names Space Port and Time Out.  Peter Edison was Edison SEVP.  David B. Cooper. Jr., was Edison CFO.

January 30: Edison Brothers Stores received approval of the sale of its mall entertainment division from the U.S. Bankruptcy Court in Wilmington DE.

February 1: Edison Brothers Stores Inc. announced that it had completed the sale of its mall entertainment division to Namco Cybertainment, a wholly owned subsidiary of Namco Ltd., of Tokyo, Japan.  The sale included selected assets and stores of Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment and Horizon Entertainment, which operated 128 game rooms and larger entertainment centers.  Namco would now operate 105 of these units (including two Exhilarama locations), and had the right to acquire the other 23 (including the other three Exhilarama locations) if current leases could be renegotiated to its favor.  The purchase price was about $15 million, and the purchase raised the number of Namco's amusement facilities in the U.S. to 420.  Peter Edison was Edison SEVP; David B. Cooper, Jr., was Edison CFO.  Kevin Hayes was president of Namco America and Namco Cybertainment.  (2/1/96 EBS press release; source)

Edison Brothers Stores, Inc.      Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment, Inc.

February 3: Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment operated 21 entertainment centers at the end of fiscal 1995. (EBS 10-K 2/1/97)

May 30: Namco Cybertainment facilities included Cyberstation, Aladdin's Castle, Time Out and Space Port; prestigious locations included Pier 39 in San Francisco; Church Street Station in Orlando, Universal Studios Florida; and Mirage and Treasure Island in Las Vegas.

November/December: Party Zone at Randhurst Mall in Mount Prospect IL closed.

1997
February 1:
Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment operated two entertainment centers, which it intended to close by September, 1997. (EBS 10-K)

September 17: Edison Brothers Mall Entertainment, Inc., along with Horizon Entertainment, Inc., were both merged into Edison Brothers Apparel Stores, Inc.

September 26: Edison Brothers Stores emerged from its Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization (entered November 3, 1995).

1999
March 9: Edison Brothers Stores, Inc. filed a voluntary petition for relief under the provisions of Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code.

2000
July 5: The voluntary 3/9/99 petition of Edison Brothers Stores, Inc for reorganization under Chapter 11 was converted to Chapter 7 (liquidation).


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last updated: 2015.03.03